The Jominy end-quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth. Jominy Test and Hardness Depth. Thanks to Walter Jominy (the Chief Metallurgist of Chrysler Corporation sometime before the war), there is a simple but. The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a given set.

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Take a sample from the furnace and place it on the Jominy test fixtures and observe the cooling pattern. Select the most appropriate steel to achieve the necessary levels of mechanical properties, residual stress and distortion in an injection moulding die for a mobile phone plastic case. General Remarks to Literature and Sources. The hardness of the samples was mominy as a function of the distance from the quenched end to demonstrate the different hardenability of the two steels.

Adopted from a ” Key to Metals ” article. The hardness variation along the test surface is a result of microstructural variation which arises since the cooling rate decreases with distance from the quenched end. The water jet is started and sprayed onto the bottom of the specimen until the specimen is cool. The cooling rate will be highest at the joming being quenched, and will decrease as distance from the end increases.

Jominy End Quench Test

This composite microstructure of martensite and austenite gives a lower hardness to the steel, although the microhardness of the martensite phase itself is still high. The solubility of the elements varies between the different phases, and the interface between the growing phase cannot move without diffusion of the slowly moving elements.

Please follow this link if you would like to provide a short review for this TLP. In this heat flow simulation you can adjust various parameters and jomiyn the effect on the heat flow and cooling of the specimen. The cooling rate will be different from one end to the other of the sample, and all you do after it has cooled down tedt, is to measure the hardness along its length. Thanks to Walter Jominy the Chief Metallurgist of Chrysler Corporation sometime before the warthere is a simple but accurate test to assess the hardenability of a given sample.


Structure of En 8 at the quenched end of Jominy bar. For example, the cooling rate at a distance of 9. Carbon controls the hardness of the martensite.

Substances like brine and water cool the steel much more quickly than oil or air. The cold region has transformed from austenite to a mixture of martensite, ferrite and pearlite. Three medium carbon steels 0. It is not only tset to understand tedt basic information provided from the Jominy test, but also to appreciate how the information obtained can be used to understand the effects of alloying in steels and the steel microstructure.

Jominy Test and Hardness Depth

A high hardenability is required for through hardening of large components. Here a specimen is in place.

Hardenability therefore describes the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a hest set of conditions. The main alloying elements which affect hardenability are carbon, boron and a group of elements including Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. We now could assess the efficiency of all that disgusting stuff the ancient smiths used for quenching their steel: Increasing the austenite grain size therefore decreases the available nucleation sites, which retards the rate of the phase transformation.

The interval is typically 1. Retrieved from ” https: It is then carefully and quickly moved to the quenching machine and positioned above a water jet. The unit of hardenability is length. Boron can therefore only affect the hardenability of steels if it is in solution.

This describes the ability of the steel to be hardened in depth by quenching. En 8 is a low hardenability steel when compared with En You have three steels. The nucleation of ferrite and pearlite occurs at heterogeneous nucleation sites such as the austenite grain boundaries.

Hardenability – Wikipedia

The Jominy end-quench test was invented by Walter E. At higher carbon levels, the formation of martensite is depressed to lower temperatures and the transformation from austenite to martensite may be incomplete, leading to retained austenite. Clicking on the circled data points will take you to images of the microstructure at that location in the sample. The hardenability of ferrous alloys, i. High carbon steels are prone to distortion and cracking during heat treatment, and can be difficult to machine in the annealed condition before heat treatment.


The round specimen is then ground flat along its length to a depth of 0. The hardness number is usually denoted by HV20 for H ardness V ickers 20 kg, for example. What is shown is the relation of the hardness values you get throughout the material relative to the hardness you get at a certain distance from cooling only the end in the same medium is what is shown For example, if you can live with the hardness you get nominy cm from the end of a tsst in a Jominy test red lineyour bar can gave a diameter of about 10 cm blue line and will have that hardness everywhere if you cool with maximal cooling rate liquid nitrogen, for example.

Steel compositions are sometimes described in terms of a carbon equivalent which describes the magnitude of the effect of all of the elements on hardenability. The size of the time step is set to the maximum allowed while ensuring numerical stability of the simulation. The tset used for quenching the material influences the cooling rate due to varying thermal conductivities and specific heats. Jominy served as president of ASM in A heat treatment that causes steel to harden is so much more than the meer plunging of hot metal into a fluid that is often a liquid.

Ferrite and pearlite are jomiiny where the cooling rate is slower. Increasing the carbon content increases the hardness of steels up to about 0. Similar tests have been developed in other countries, such as the SAC test, which uses a sample quenched from all sides by immersion in water.

Increasing the austenite grain size increases the hardenability of steels. This data can be presented using CCT C ontinuous C ooling T ransformation diagrams which are used to select steels to suit the component size and quenching media.