modern art, “Towards a Newer Laocoon.”1 These two articles, I believe, stake out the ground for Greenberg’s later practice as a critic and set down the main. Upon finishing my reading of Clement Greenberg’s famous essay Towards a New Laocoön, my initial reaction was to say to myself, “Ah that. Greenberg, Clement, () “Towards a Newer Laocoon” from Harrison, The title refers both to Gotthold Lessing’s Laocoon: An Essay upon the Limits of Poe.

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Economically, videogames can no longer be ignored and companies want to tap into its ever-expanding market share. Does this highlight the need for a further distinction between forms, or is it simply a function of raw computational power?

Mimicry across forms was a limitation, greejberg argued, and each medium should only pursue its particular strength. Return to the Top. Greenberg sees it as the zenith, but possibly only for the moment.

Likewise, many Fluxus or performance works are conceived as rules alone. Eliot, or take up the Realist cause of the working man.

Clement Greenberg – Wikipedia

The New Press, lqocoon, pp. In programming parlance, rules are called algorithms. Eventually, Greenberg was concerned that some Abstract Expressionism had been “reduced to a set of mannerisms” and increasingly looked to a new set of artists who abandoned such elements as subject matter, connection with the artist, and definite brush strokes.

Second, I will examine videogames as a case study to track contemporary discussions of medium specificity. Post-Painterly Abstraction is generally seen as continuing the Modernist dialectic of self-criticism.

An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetrytrans. You helped me greebberg as well. Many poststructuralist theorists since the s, including Barthes and Foucault, provide rigorous critiques of authors and authorship in the arts.

Posted by JM Rayner at So are videogames simply a composite media, brought together by digitization, or is the sum greater than its constituent parts? He writes, Every time the player is confronted with overt rules that they must acknowledge consciously, the lens is smudged, the stage eroded; at every point that the functionality of a simulated experience deviates jarringly from the natural world’s, the designer’s hand is exposed to the player, drawing attention away from the world as a believable place, and onto the limitations of an artificial set of concrete rules dictated by the designer.


This is an important point, since it reveals an assumed anthropomorphism that inhabits many claims for medium specificity. More sophisticated games introduce narrative, text, video, graphic design, and so on.

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Instead, the rules should always strive for transparency, like a ghost apparatus that structures the play without ever making itself known. Under ‘Links’ you will find the extensions of Nascent Confessions, namely my artwork, poetry, photography, and a more informal blog. Fox and Sharp Questions of medium specificity have guided the history of art since the middle of the twentieth century. By using a single shared subject matter as a kind of scientific control case, he proposed the strengths and weaknesses of each medium.

He was associate editor of Commentary from until This page, however, is the substrate for the more miscellaneous of my endeavors.

It marks a clear distinction from film, poetry, dance, or any other art. Greenberg saw Bush’s post-Painters Eleven work as a clear manifestation of the shift from abstract expressionism to Color Field painting and Lyrical Abstractiona shift he had called for in most of his critical writings of the period.

In each case, after a period of time in which the newly emergent medium stylistically resembled other media e.

Here greejberg will find some of my thoughts and those of greebnerg people who influence me; the poetry or writings of others; and the sundry writings of my own. Ultimately, these arguments boil down greenverg claims for legitimacy.

Kitsch changes according to style, but remains always the same. The rise of the Romantic era ultimately worsens the confusion of the arts. It resurfaces whenever any new media candidate arises, whether videogames, computers, or the Internet. This structure of production is really a shared characteristic with videogames, since most contemporary examples rely on large collaborative teams. In this sense, the rules are inert until a player is present. They are the basic instructions carried out by computers in order to solve problems.

Apart from the persistent association of games with mindless entertainment, one difficulty plaguing the debate over medium specificity in videogames is their resistance to a single medium categorization. If he is correct, even if he had written with every ounce of intellect against abstraction, it still would have prevailed.


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Wikiquote has quotations related to: Greenberg suggested this process attained a level laocokn “purity” a word he only used within scare quotes that would reveal the truthfulness of the canvasand the two-dimensional aspects of the space flatness. Kitsch, on the other hand, was the product of industrialization and the urbanization of the working class, a filler made for the consumption of the working class: Instead, the industry grew laoccoon its early users, as better hardware, graphics, and sound led to increased realism, sophisticated narrative structures, and adult subject matter.

A recipe for chocolate cake is never an actual cake, no matter how elegant its description.

In the essay “American-Type Painting” Greenberg promoted the work of Abstract Expressionists, among them Jackson PollockWillem de KooningHans HofmannBarnett Newmanand Clyfford Stillas the next stage in Modernist art, arguing that these painters were moving towards greater emphasis on the ‘ flatness ‘ of the picture plane.

Greenberg wrote several seminal essays that defined his views on art history in the 20th century. This page was last edited on 14 Octoberat University of Chicago Press. Greenberg coined the term Post-Painterly Abstraction to distinguish it from Abstract Expressionismor Painterly Abstractionas Greenberg preferred to call it. His parents were middle-class Jewish immigrants, and he was the eldest of their three sons. Views Read Edit View history. Post-Painterly Abstraction was a term given to a myriad of abstract art that reacted against gestural abstraction of second-generation Abstract Expressionists.

Ironically, in our current socio-cultural context, medium specificity is part of that process of artistic legitimacy, cultural currency, and academic status for videogames—in short, in its formation as a discipline. View my complete profile. Most board games make an easy transition to videogame form, but the improvisational methods of role-playing or make-believe do not cross over.