Ayya Khema. BEING NOBODY,. GOING NOWHERE. Meditations on the Buddhist Path. Wisdom Publications • Boston. Acquired at In this lucid classic, beloved teacher Ayya Khema introduces the reader to the essence of the Buddhist path. She addresses the how and why of. Being Nobody, Going Nowhere – Praise Ayya Khema has achieved both. “Of special help are the Ayya’s simple, grounded instructions to aid us in our.

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Being Nobody Going Nowhere (Audiobook) by Ayya Khema |

Open Preview Goung a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Being Nobody, Going Nowhere: Zoketsu Norman Fischer Foreword by. In this lucid classic, beloved teacher Ayya Khema introduces the reader to the essence of the Buddhist path.

She addresses the how and why of meditation, providing a clear framework for understanding the nature of karma and rebirth and the entirety of the eightfold path. With specific, nowherd advice Nowhfre Khema illuminates the practices of compassion and sympathetic joy In this lucid classic, beloved teacher Ayya Khema introduces the reader to the essence of the Buddhist path.

With specific, practical advice Ayya Khema illuminates the practices of compassion and sympathetic joy and offers forthright guidance in working with the hindrances that we all encounter in meditation.

Being Nobody, Going Nowhere: Meditations on the Buddhist Path

Few introductory books are both simple and profound. Being Nobody, Going Nowhere is both. Paperbackpages. Published June 15th by Wisdom Publications first published January 25th To see what your friends thought of this book, noobody sign up. To ask other readers questions about Being Nobody, Going Nowhereplease sign up. Be the first nowhwre ask a question about Being Nobody, Going Nowhere.

Lists with This Book. Nov 30, Siew Ee rated it it was amazing.

A wonderful book, but I feel that the synopsis given is a little misleading. For Buddhists and non-Buddhists who have never meditated before and would like to learn how, please do not rely solely on this book as an nibody booklet on meditation techniques. There is even a detailed explanation of Karaniya Metta Sutta, which I was particularly happy about as I have been chanting it in Pali without knowing its full meaning and beauty. I started reading this book while undergoing my weekly Basic Buddhism course which included Dharma lessons and basic concentration meditation techniques.

This book is definitely worth reading again and again. However, for those who would like a basic introduction to Buddhism, this may not be an ideal book, but it will certainly inspire and convince you to practise meditation! Please do not learn it from a book — you will find yourself really going nowhere!

Dec 27, Happyreader rated it it was amazing Shelves: A nowheree practical and accessible book on the basics of Buddhist thought and the importance of meditation practice. Since the book is a collection of her talks given during a retreat, her teachings are focused on what to pay attention to during practice paired with the benefits of such practice to motivate everyone to stay present on and off the cushion.

She begins with the reminder that meditation is how we rest our minds and develop the mental muscles to respond more wisely to whatever arises. L A very practical and accessible book on the basics of Buddhist thought and the importance of meditation practice.

Felt more loving and serene and more inspired to follow the practice after reading. She also does a very skillful job in distinguishing between near enemies such as contentment vs. Her review of the Eightfold Nobkdy and the progression from Right View to Right Intention and how everything else builds upon those up to Right Concentration back to Right View again is very helpful. Bottom line, she stresses that every moment of our lives is an opportunity for us to practice and awaken to our full spiritual potential if we qyya commit to paying attention and to examining our actions, thoughts, and emotions.

A great primer on the basic tools and practices for compassionate and wise living.

Being Nobody, Going Nowhere – Ayya Khema – Google Books

Dec 29, Kari Shankar rated it it was amazing. Truly one of the best books on Buddhist philosophy. Very simple to follow. Very measurable progress from within. Started reading it hesitantly.

Never really finished many good books on religion or philosophy. This book is different. Keeps the pages turning. While she tries to present a complicated subject in as simple a format as possible, somewhere near the last last half of the book the reader can still feel a tad lost.

Best to ahya re reading it gokng Very simple. Best to start re reading it after say a few weeks and it shines a lot brighter and is as interesting on the second read. I will keep reading and re-reading this book for the rest of my life.

It is a form of meditation in itself. The thoughts, the wisdom, the ideas flow and a calmness descends. This book was given to me by my Mum who died nearly twenty years ago.

I love her for giving me this book and I love this book for existing in my life. And, like my Mum’s love, this book will always live and breathe in me. Thank you, Ayya Khema. May 06, Steve Woods rated it it was amazing Shelves: The path of practice isn’t easy.

Ayya Khemma writes in this book her sense and personal experience with important aspects of Buddhist teaching; 4 Noble Truths, 4 Friends, 5 Aggregates etc and explores the experience of meditation in the Buddhist context. She writes with tremendous depth of understanding that derives from her decades as a Buddhist nun and with clarity and insight that helps the western practitioner come to terms with what are kheja foreign to our own traditions.

It certainly h The path of practice isn’t easy.

Being Nobody Going Nowhere : Meditations on the Buddhist Path

It certainly helped me at a critical stage in my own practice, just entering the weird world that starts to come into view once the split between ego and the observer takes place. It was to me a very gentle way of understanding the things that were happening to me and of gaining a sense of direction and reassurance that all was well.

I am not what I think and that’s wonderful! Dec 15, Marcyr. This book completely changed my life. It is the most influential Buddhism book I have read, thoroughly covering the entire practice including the Four Noble Truths, The Noble eightfold Qyya, The way things exist, meditation etc. It should be required reading for everyone, it is goinh good!

I love Ayya Khema!! Just wish I could afford to get her other books. My Dad gave me the copy I own and I have shared it with many people despite it’s being incredibly important to me. I just cannot keep it all This book completely changed my life.

I just cannot keep it all to myself. Jun 04, Elizabeth rated it really liked it. To be fair, the four star rating may be more of a reflection of my state of mind than the quality of the book.

I don’t bowhere I am ready for what it had to say, but I can certainly accept the beauty of much of the message. Perhaps this is a five star book I desperately tried to filter through gping four star brain.

Wow, This wonderful, german-born Buddhist nun, explains with utter simplicity, the reason for, the why, and the how of mindfulness and Meditation.

Going Nowhere, Being Nobody, sounds kind of drab It is the reason we choose the spiritual Path. Feb 16, Kev rated it it was amazing Shelves: One of the best Buddhist based books I’ve ever read. Perfect for the western reader or maybe not so perfect as western readers don’t usually desire to be nobody and on the road to nowhere as well! Jul 30, Phil Calandra rated it really liked it.

This is a very upbeat and encouraging book into the practice of Buddhism. The author gives practical advice how the Buddhist Path can improve one’s life and that “liberation” can only be achieved by one’s individual effort.

Furthermore, unlike most books on Buddhism, the author clarifies the spiritual aspects of Bud This is a very upbeat and encouraging book into the practice of Buddhism. Furthermore, unlike most books on Buddhism, the author clarifies the spiritual aspects of Buddhism in terms of what “Liberation” and “Non-Self” are not. The author gives and example by citing a story of a fish and turtle who were friends and who lived in the same lake for some time. One day the turtle decided to visit the land surrounding the lake.

When the turtle returned, it told the fish that the land was wonderful and beautiful.

The fish asked whether the land was transparent, cool, rippling, shiny, good for gliding, buoyant and wet. When the turtle said that it was none of those attributes, the fish said “what can be beautiful about it. I would highly recommend this book. Oct 06, Ulf Wolf rated it it was amazing. The subtitle of this wonder of a book is Meditations on the Buddhist Path, an amazingly apt description.

Accounts from former students of her corroborate that impression. She is like a stern mother telling you the often-unpalatable truth without sugarcoating; she has your best interest in mind, that is clear.


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Neville Goddard Lancelot () fue un profeta, profesor, y autor de la ley con cualquier “ismo” o la enseanza ‘Nuevo Pensamiento’ como comnmente. Buy a cheap copy of Dietas Mentales book by Neville Goddard. con cualquier ” ismo” o la enseanza ‘Nuevo Pensamiento’ como comnmente se anuncian por. Neville Goddard Lancelot () fue un profeta, profesor, y autor de la o la ensenanza ‘Nuevo Pensamiento’ como comunmente se anuncian por estos.

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Your Faith Is Your Fortune by Neville Goddard

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Your Faith Is Your Fortune

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Neville Goddard – steps to Correct Prayer – PDF Free Download

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EN 10219-1 PDF

Documents Similar To 2-Structural-Steel-BS-EN (1).pdf. BS EN [ BS EN [ AM].pdf. This revision permits the publication of BS EN be adopted as a Harmonised Standard under the Constuction Products Directive (CPD). PN-EN,2. Cold finished structural welded hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels. The scope of the standard includes: cold-formed round.

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This site uses cookies. If you not change browser settings, you agree to it. Dn versatility in shape and characteristics allows them wide used the industry nowadays.

What are the advantages of steel hollow section in relation to the open sections? Cold formed hollow sections for steel construction ensure high mechanical resistance and high yield strength. They are used as a fixed load-bearing structures in the building and civil engineering, are suitable elements in mechanical engineering 1021-91 of its static advantages, and are also used in aerospace and automotive industry.

They are not suitable for dynamic loads. They are produced at room temperature, by cold forming the sheet which is longitudinally welded at the ends, and therefore also known as welded hollow sections. At the request and the technical possibilities, the inner weld can be removed or smoothed, while the outer weld is already processed in most cases. Due to the process of cold forming, there is a high level of residual stress remaining in the hollow sections which the can cause cracks during workload.

Unlike warm-formed hollow sections, cold-formed have considerably greater accuracy of wall thickness, and they are visually more attractive thanks to the flat and smooth surface.

EN 10219-1 S275J2H Pipe, Size: 1/2 Inch, 3/4 Inch, 1 Inch, 2 Inch, 3 Inch

Cold formed hollow sections are defined by the European standard EN The greatest advantage of cold formed hollow 10219–1 is the way they are made that enables the production of round, square or rectangular pipes from almost any material at an affordable price.

There are uniform names prescribed to facilitate the administrative work with these or other types of hollow sections, so that everyone would know which product it is when seeing the specification.

According to EN the following denotements are defined: Common materials of which cold-formed hollow sections are made according to EN The square hollow section of total produced lenght of It was measured that the flatness deviation is 16 mm. Tolerated deviation on the length of 12, mm is Measurement can be made on a meter in length from an arbitrary starting point, and find out that at one point deviation is 3.

No matter that the total length of the deviation is within the limits, more precise measurements determined impermissible deviation, and the product can be declared as defective and to be reclaimed.

Round tube in a fixed length of 3. The tolerance on the total lenght is not considered in this case which is beyond the allowed limitsbut the deviation is measured for every meter away from any arbitrary point. All measurements have shown that the deviation from flatness is within the allowed 3 mm per meter of length. Therefore, the product is correct though not flat.

PN-EN ,2 ||| Structural steel tubes of non-alloy and fine grain steels

Learn more I understand. Cold formed welded hollow sections according to EN Related items What are hollow sections according EN ? What is 102119-1 norm? Metal Industry and Transport. Ovako adds shifts to increase production capacity.

Production of welded pipes and hollow sections | FERONA a.s.

EU imposes definitive anti-dumping measures on The Commission decided today to impose definitive anti-dumping measures on two steel products. Worldsteel celebrates its 50th anniversary. While mankind has 1219-1 producing steel for thousands of years, mass production of steel received a.


Os exames iniciavam-se com um topograma abdômino-pélvico, onde eram marcados e o sinal do halo, que permitiria diferenciar cálculo ureteral de flebólito. yearly . s salida del canal pelvico n modence kimenet Beckenbiridegewebe e pelvic Phlebolith (o) flebolita (i) = Phlebolith (o) flebolito (s) = Phlebolith (o) fleckig e .

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The value of unenhanced helical computed tomography in the evaluation of patients with pain in the flank. Abstract Our purpose was to evaluate the accuracy of unenhanced helical computed tomography in the diagnosis of ureteral lithiasis, to establish the frequency of the main computed tomography findings, and to assess and compare the interobserver agreement with the results of conventional intravenous urography.

A prospective double-blind study was carried out in 25 patients referred for unenhanced helical computed tomography and conventional intravenous urography due to nephretic colic.

Both methods were employed to evaluate the size of the kidneys, hydronephrosis and the size and location of ureteral stones. Perirenal hyperdensities, periureteral edema and the halo sign were fleboliro assessed by unenhanced helical computed tomography.

In 21 of the 25 patients, there was agreement between the results of both methods. We concluded that unenhanced helical computed tomography is as efficient as conventional intravenous urography in the evaluation of patients with nephretic colic, is a reproducible method, and avoids the discomfort of the use of intravenous contrast.

Davidson’s Radiology of the kidney and genitourinary tract. Schmucki O, Asper R.

Clinical significance of stone analysis. Deuwes W, Jager N.

Meaning of “flebólito” in the Portuguese dictionary

Ureteral calculi in patients with flank pain: Radiologic diagnosis of renal colic: The value of unenhanced helical computerized tomography in the management of acute flank pain. Diagnosis of acute flank pain: The frequency of urolithiasis in hospital fleboliro diagnoses in the United States.

Recurrence rates and severity pelvicl urinary calculi. Scand J Urol Nephrol ; Arch Intern Med ; Ultrasound diagnosis of ureteral stones: Spiral computerized tomography in the evaluation of acute flank pain: Prospective comparison of unenhanced spiral computed tomography and intravenous urogram in the evaluation of acute flank pain.

Dicionario portugues | Alan Barros –

Interobserver variability in the interpretation of unenhanced helical CT for the diagnosis of ureteral stone disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr ; Distinguishing pelvic phleboliths from distal ureteral stones on routine unenhanced helical CT: All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

Services on Demand Journal. How pelvicl cite this article.


It is intended for those of you who can already solve the cube in a few minutes and want to get really fast. If you are a complete beginner, please, visit Jasmine’s . Discover the Fridrich method in detail. The fastest Rubik’s cube method to solve the 3×3. All the algorithms and formulas. Jessica Fridrich is a professor at Binghamton University, who specializes in data hiding The method describes solving the cube in a layer-by-layer fashion.

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You want to learn the Fridrich but do you own a decent cube? I would advice you to ckbe the MoYu Aolong v2, best speed cube fridroch Speedup your solving time without any effort. It doesn’t corner twist as often nor does it lock up. Good control of the cube. It definitely turns much better than my other speed cubes. Super-durable and solid stickers fdidrich vivid colors will not peel off or fade easily. This moyu speed cube 3×3 comes pre-lubricated and tensioned. Advanced solution for Rubik’s cube 3×3.

We are now going to have a look at the Fridrich method. This is the fastest and the easiest Rubik’s cube solving method. Most of the world fastest speedcubing athletes use the Fridrich method to solve the Rubik’s cube.

CFOP Method

It is the key to solve the cube under 20 seconds or even 10 seconds if you firdrich master the method. This method frivrich named after its creator, Jessica Fridrich. She invented it at the end of the s.

She says she came with the idea of this method because it allows very fast inspection during the resolution. The corner firsts methods that were the best at the time did not allow such a fast vision.

Fridrich method : The fastest Rubik’s cube solution for 3x3x3

Here is a photo of Jessica while practicing on the Rubik’s cube 3×3. The Fridrich method is only made up of 4 steps but also full of algorithm to learn.

If we consider the first two layers as solved intuitively, there is in total 78 algorithms to learn to solve the last layer: Thankfully, you do not need to learn everything at once and each of these two steps can be separated in two sub-steps.

The sub-steps are solving the edges and then the corners. This step 1 is the exact same of the step 1 of the beginners method. The basics are described in detail on our page which presents how to solve a Rubik’s cube. But now, the cross needs to be solved fast.

Every cross can be solved in under 10 moves. The whole cross solving should be planned during the 15 seconds of inspection, before starting the resolution. Once you are at that level, you should be able to solve every cross in under 1. To improve on the cross, my advice is to solve it blindfolded. During pre-inspection, take more than 15 seconds. Look at your Rubik’s cube and try to see the optimal solution for solving the cross.

At first you will only be capable of planning 2 edges, then 3 and then the whole cross. Once you can do any cross blindfolded, you will be able to focus on the first pair while solving the cross. This will make you save huge amounts of time. If you are interested in more information about solving the Rubik’s cube blindfoldedhave a look at our guide.

I would also advice you to solve the cross on the bottom layer from the beginning. So flip the whole cube and start practicing with the cross on the bottom.

It helps you to focus on unsolved faces, instead of focusing on the white face. It also avoids to flip the cube when the cross is finished, which will save time too. The aim is to perform the moves continuously and to have a good transition between each step. Every second you do not rotate any face can be saved.

It is possible that solving the cross on the bottom wastes time in the beginning but it will quickly make you improve. If it is too difficult for you, maybe you can try it later on But if you want to solve the cube under 20 seconds, that’s a very important step. Although the cases can be very different, some similar pattern often happen. I am going to give you a few techniques to solve these cases. I found all these cases intuitively, just with practice. Memorizing them will save you time.

Jessica Fridrich – Wikipedia

After you’re finished, just doing a D move or D’ will align the cross with the faces. When the cross is prepared a half turn to the solved position, it is particularly easy because all you need is to focus on opposite colors.

Once finished, a D2 move aligns the cross. While doing the last D move, you can start inspecting for the next step of the resolution. These techniques are very helpful.

It is now time to start practicing! Do not under-estimate the progress you can make by just looking at the cube and trying to figure out the cross. Sometimes you can even take a minute to think on how to solve the cross. Simulating moves mentally will help you for the next solves and you will become more and more familiar with efficient cross solving. There is no general rule on the best way to solve the cross though.

Everyone has his own technique and his way of solving the cross. It is up to you to find your own style and solution. A new speedcuber just appears! The idea is very easy: Solve the first two layers at once.

More precisely, every time you solve a corner, just associate the corresponding edge and solve both at the same time. This corner and edge are called a pair.

Sometimes, it is easier to first build the pair and then insert it. Some other times, we build the pair and insert it at the same time. There are many websites presenting solving formulas for the first two layers. According to me, it is much more interesting to find all the cases by yourself. It is not complicated and you will remember them forever. To do this, I will still help you by showing you a few basic cases. From these 3 cases, you should be able to deduce the entire solve.

They will be presented with an example. The basic idea of the first 2 layers is to pair the edge and the corner. And this needs to be done while inserting them at the correct place.

On the following example, we can see that a simple rotation of the right face will pair the red white bleu corner and the red blue edge.

The rotation of the upper layer will then bring cjbe pair to where it needs to be once solved. Finally the R’ move will complete the solve of the pair. Here fridfich the two main ways for inserting a pair, when the white of the corner is not located on top. Length moves will appear here Algorithm.

There is a third tricky case. This case occurs when the white corner has the white on top. This case will be solved in two steps. First we will turn the white corner so that it is not white on top anymore and then solve it with one of the formulas presented above.

Every time you solve a pair, you are actually using the empty slot of that same pair. If you don’t, you may break other pairs that have been already built before. Frifrich letting you play with your Rubik’s cube, I would still like to teach you a couple of tips.

Most of the time, what slows you down is your inspection and your thinking. So there is no need of turning the faces as fast as possible. Take your time and try to anticipate. Secondly, try to minimize the number of times you flip the whole cube during the resolution.

Flipping the cube is the time when no move can be performed.

As everything changes when rotating the cube, all your inspection will be hard to transpose. It has to be maximum once per pair, ideally just once or twice during the whole solve of the F2L. Also remember that you have two hands and the left hand should not only be used to hold the cube. Have a look at the following case:. You may be tempted to solve this case with your right hand.

But doing it with your left hand will be quicker! With a bit of practice, you left and right hands can solve cases equally as fast.


Genus: Macroglossus Species: Macroglossus minimus. Subspecies: M. m. booensis Macroglossus minimus E. Geoffroy, Type locality. Description: A small, delicate-looking creamy-furred bat with a long slender muzzle. Upperparts buffy-brown. Underparts paler and greyer. Wing membranes . Proper noun[edit]. Macroglossus minimus m. A taxonomic species within the family Pteropodidae – a megabat, the long-tongued nectar bat.

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Macroglossus minimus

The long-tongued fruit bat is found from urban coastal areas to denser forested areas. It is located in elevations from sea-level up to M Michleburgh et al.

Macroglossus minimusalso known by the common name the long-tongued fruit bat, is amongst the smallest of the family Pteropodidae Gunnell et al. The tail is extremely short, reaching to macrogossus about 4 mm at the longest length, and the uropatagium is almost non-existent.

The ears are about half of the head length — approximately 6 mm; Also, the ear does not have a tragus as do many families in the order Chiroptera Dobson, The fur of the long-tongued fruit bat is reddish-brown on the back and is very macroglosus compared macrogossus other species in Pteropodidae.

The fur on the abdomen is shorter than on the back and is paler in color. A dark stripe of brown fur runs bilaterally down the top of the head to the neck. The rostrum is long and narrow and the eyes are large compared to bats in the suborder Microchiroptera Nowak, Sexual dimorphism does not occur in this species as it does in other genera of the same family where males possess a growth of hair tufts below each jaw on each side of the neck and females lack the hair tufts.

In macroglossus minimus, both genders lack the hair tufts Nowak, pg. Breeding in long-tongued fruit bats occurs about twice a year with a gestation period of about to days. Reproductive maturity in females is achieved at about 10 months after birth Gunnell et al.

Fertility after birth is restored shortly after weaning and most females are impregnated again at this time.

Macroglossus minimus – Wikispecies

Lactation lasts for about 60 to minikus days, and approximately 70 to 90 days after lactation ends the females become fertile again Michleburgh et al. Females seem to have no particular breeding season during the year. Macroglossus minimus is a solitary bat except when a female is caring for her infant. Due to their small size, it is easier for them to hid from possible predators if they remain solitary.

Also, if the bat is alone it is less desirable for the predator to attack such a small prey; The reward would not be worth the effort of the energy expended to capture it Nowak Long-tongued fruit bats can be found active during day or night. Although their peak foraging time is dusk, Macroglossus minimus has been captured during all times of any given day. Although numbers of specimens captured lessened during daylight hours, this may nacroglossus related to the visibility of the mist nets used to capture the bats Gunnell et al.

Roosting may also occur during the day or night. Macroglossus minimus roosts under roofs, in rolled leaves either in ground plants or trees, or under tree branches.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

These roost sites are sometimes in the trees used for foraging. During the roosting time the long-tongued fruit bat hangs upside down with its wings wrapping its body, and “the long axis of the head is held at right angles to the body most other bats hang with the face pointing directly downwards ,” Yalden and Morris Long-tongued fruit bats are appropriately named due to their long tongue for extracting nectar and pollen from flowers.

Macroglossus minimus feeds primarily on nectar and pollen, but occasionally also drinks the juices of soft fruit Nowak, The flowers it mainly feeds on are from plants of the banana tree Musaceaethe coconut tree Cocos niciferaand mangroves Sonneratiaceae Gunnell et al. The long-tongued fruit bat feeds by first landing on a flower or a nearby flower and then using its long tongue to extract nectar or pollen from the flower Michleburgh et al. Long-tongued fruit bats, like many other pteropodids, have large eyes, and they orient visually.

They do not use echolocation to locate their food source as do families in the suborder Microchiroptera. Macroglossus minimus “is considered to be a highly efficient vector in pollen transfer for a large number of tree species,” Gunnell et al. This pollen transfer occurs during normal feeding habits and is responsible for the fertilization of a large number of trees in human-operated banana plantations.

Without the long-tongued fruit bat, these trees would not be able to become fertilized naturally and produce as much fruit as they do. This could result in the unemployment of some of the harvest workers of these plantations. The long-tongued fruit bat is not threatened due to its widespread distribution and the large number of individuals that exist in the wild. Also, this species can exist in a variety of habitats. However, there must be at least “small area s that has been planted with trees that produce nectar or pollen on which it can feed,” Michleburgh et al.

Population studies through banding specimens of the long-tongued fruit bat and later recapturing them results in only about a 40 to 50 percent recapture rate. These experiments, conducted in the Philippines, do not show whether this pattern is due to a low survivorship rate in adults or a migration to another location Michleburgh et al. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.

Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a now extinct synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Epiphytes and climbing plants are also abundant. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal. Monograph of the Asiatic Chiroptera. Old World Fruit Bats: An Action Plan for their Conservation.

Walker’s Bats of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press. The Lives of Bats. Help us improve the site by macrogllssus our survey. To cite this page: Accessed December 31, at https: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesn’t cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we mavroglossus our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts.

While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control.

Macroglossus minimus lesser long-tongued fruit bat Facebook.

Biogeographic Regions oriental native australian native Habitat The long-tongued fruit bat is found from urban coastal areas to denser forested areas. Terrestrial Biomes forest rainforest Physical Description Macroglossus minimusalso known by the common name the long-tongued fruit bat, is amongst the smallest of the family Pteropodidae Gunnell et al.

The ears are about half of the head length — approximately 6 mm; Also, the ear does not have a tragus as do many families in the order Chiroptera Dobson, The fur of the long-tongued fruit bat is reddish-brown on the back and is very long compared to other species in Pteropodidae.

Other Physical Features endothermic bilateral symmetry Range mass 16 to 20 g 0. Key Behaviors motile Communication and Perception Perception Channels tactile chemical Food Habits Long-tongued fruit bats are appropriately named due to their long tongue for extracting nectar and pollen from flowers. Economic Importance for Humans: Positive Macroglossus minimus “is considered to be a highly efficient vector in pollen transfer for a large number of tree species,” Gunnell et al.

Macroglossus minimus – #1426

Conservation Status Macroglpssus long-tongued fruit bat is not threatened due to its widespread distribution and the large number of individuals that exist in the wild. In other words, India and southeast Asia. Connect with us Help us improve the site by taking our survey. Classification Kingdom Animalia animals Animalia: The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support.


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Ayer Me Dijo Un Ave by Caifanes

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Flow of Low-Pressure Thermosetting Molding Compounds. Article no: STD- Edition: Approved: 9/1/ No of pages: 4. Replaces: ASTM D ASTM-D Standard Test Method for Spiral Flow of Low-Pressure Thermosetting Molding Compounds – spiral flow; thermosets;; ICS Number Code Standard Number, ASTM D – 09(). Title, Standard Test Method for Spiral Flow of Low-Pressure Thermosetting Molding Compounds.

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Spiral Flow of Low-Pressure Thermosetting Molding Compounds1

D — 09 Standard Wstm Method for Spiral Flow of Low-Pressure Thermosetting Molding Compounds1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.

A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. It is especially suited for those compounds used for encapsulation or other low pressure molding techniques. It involves the use of a standard spiral flow mold in a transfer molding press under specified conditions of applied temperature and pressure with a controlled charge mass.

Norma ASTM D()

It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Current edition approved Sept. Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as D – 98 Significance and Use 4. It is recommended that the plunger d323 equipped with at least one peripheral xstm groove. It is recommended that a pot diameter between NOTE 2—Preliminary evidence indicates that, in many cases, reasonable correlations may be achieved between laboratories using presses with different pot diameters.

Typical examples are presses with pot diameters of However, a few well-documented cases are recorded where differences in pot diameters, even within this listed range, have caused large differences in flow-length readings. Therefore, for best interlaboratory correlation it is recommended that identical pot diameters be used. No further reproductions authorized.

D — 09 FIG. NOTE 3—Since the only commercially available molds are calibrated in inches, spiral-flow length will be reported in these units. Conversion to SI units can readily be made by multiplying the flow length, in inches, by the appropriate conversion factor, NOTE 4—There is considerable evidence that the test is usable over asrm wider range of flow lengths, but this has not yet been confirmed ast, interlaboratory testing. NOTE 5—Preforms or pellets may be used if found necessary; however, aetm length may be affected by their use.

Sampling, based on engineering principles, prior to packaging shall be considered an acceptable alternative. For referee testing, all material shall be shipped and stored in moisture-barrier containers. They shall be stored for a minimum of 24 h at the standard laboratory temperature, before breaking the seal on the container. Alternative methods of conditioning samples shall be mutually agreed upon between manufacturer and purchaser.

Several preliminary moldings shall be made with the material to be tested to purge the helical runner before beginning the test. This procedure is essential when changing from one compound to another and is recommended as a routine practice. Measure the temperature in accordance with the procedures described in Practice D or by thermocouples attached to the mold and plunger. The temperature shall be allowed to reach equilibrium by waiting at least 3 min between moldings.

D — 09 sufficiently accurate for determining transfer pressure. Therefore, the force exerted by the plunger shall be measured by some means such as an accurately calibrated direct-reading force gage or proving ring. The actual transfer pressure is then calculated as pascals or pounds per square inch by dividing the force in newtons or pounds-force by the plunger area in square metres or square inches.

ASTM D3123 – 09(2017)

The relationship between the amount of compound and the dimensions of the transfer pot is critical in obtaining meaningful, reproducible spiral-flow values. The use of excessive amounts of compound will result in shorter, inconsistent spiral flows.

For transfer pots The elapsed time astk insertion of the charge into asgm pot and the development of pressure on the charge by the plunger shall be no more than 5 seconds. Too long a dwell time before transferring will cause erratic results.

This time will vary with the compound under test. Cure the ast, as recommended for easy removal. Read the spiral flow length directly from the molded specimen at the point of farthest continuous flow to the nearest 0.

Precision and Bias Attempts to develop a full precision and bias statement for this test method have not been successful. For this reason, data on precision and bias cannot be given.

Spiral Flow of Low-Pressure Thermosetting Molding Compounds1

Because this test method does not contain a round-robin-based numerical precision and bias statement, it shall not be used as a referee test method in case of dispute. Anyone wishing to participate in the development of precision and bias data should contact the Chairman, Subcommittee D September 1, 1 Updated ISO equivalency statement.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn.

Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website www.

Best Practices for Incorporating Standards Education in the. Data Sheet for CalCoat Material-Testing – Learn Civil Engineering.


The silver catfish, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacépède: ) is a highly valued food-fish included among the dominant commercial catches exploited in major. Abstract: The silver catfish, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacépède: ) is a highly valued food-fish included among the dominant commercial catches. SpeciesChrysichthys nigrodigitatusBagrid catfish. ADW Pocket Guides on the iOS App Store! The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW.

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Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus individuals were sampled monthly in both open water and aquatic vegetation habitats from August, to October, and stomach contents were evaluated on each specimen collected. The eco-morphological patterns depicted along with dietary analysis showed that C.

High niche breadths ranging between 0. Chrysochthys trophic plasticity behavior of this claroteid and the broad range of preys ingested, led to active spawning and high colonization that indicated the successful establishment of C.

This catfish belongs to the genus Chrysichthysfamily Claroteidae, Siluriformes order and Ostariophysi super order. Synonimies are Pimelodus nigrodigitausArius acutivelusChrysichthys furcatusChrysichthys buettikoferi and Chrysichthys cameronensis 5. In general, the species showed grew silvery color with a white belly and a black adipose 6.


In the tropical estuary of Nigeria, Asuquo et al. Though widespread in the natural inland waters where the species grows and spawns actively, it is quite difficult to reproduce C. Therefore, the numerous man-made lakes, established throughout the country are alternative environment mediums that may contribute to aquaculture development and particularly, to serve as spawning grounds for some delicate species such as C.

In December,about live individuals 15 genitors and figerlings of C. In particular, nothing is known about the feeding habits, resource exploitation and utilization and foraging patterns of this claroteid in the sand-dragged artificial lake of Ahozon. Fisheries ecologists have been conducted studies on feeding ecology to evaluate the dietary composition and the food habits of a fish species in order to provide useful information for fisheries management, aquaculture valorization and habitat protection.

As reported by Gbaguidi et al. Evaluating the prominence and establishment of a species in a man-made lake requires extensive qualitative and quantitative data on the exploitation and utilization of the food resources considered as energy sources for species survival, growth and active spawning The current study investigated the feeding ecology of C.

Lake Ahozon is an abandoned and unmanaged water body originated from the accumulation of running waters in a hole created by sand-dragging activities 9. The study area comprises a vast wetland at the costal area that extended from Cotonou city South-Benin to Ouidah, some sandy soils and red ferric soils 9.

The region experiences a sub-equatorial climate with two wet seasons April-July, mid-September-October with a peak usually recorded in June and two dry seasons, a major one from December-March and the minor one from mid-August to mid-September Yearly rainfall averaged Monthly evaporation varied between With regard to water quality, lake Ahozon exhibited dissolved oxygen concentrations ranging between 0.

Average pH was 7. Also, depths ranged between The fish community of lake Ahozon comprised the cichlids, Sarotherodon galilaeusOreochromis niloticus and Tilapia guineensisthe African bonytongue, Heterotis niloticus Osteoglossidae nigrodigtiatus, the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Clariidae and the claroteid, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus 9.

Zooplanktons genera recorded in lake Ahozon were Trichocerca, Keratella, Brachionus and copepods. Aquatic vegetation chrysichyhys comprised Cyperus crassipesCyperus rotundusFuirena umbellata and Ropogon gayanusLudwigia perennisEmilia praetermissaEleocharis complanataEnydra fluctuansMariscus ligularis and dominant phytoplankton included NaviculaPeridiniumScenedemusPinnulariaSpirogyraCosmariumMelosiraSynechocystisMicrocystisOscillatoriaEuglenaPhacusSurirella and Lychmophora.

The water of lake Ahozon was occasionally utilized for subsistence agriculture. Likewise, subsistence multi species fisheries sporadically occurred in lake Ahozon and were practiced by a couple of migrant fishermen To document the feeding ecology of C.

Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus individuals were collected twice a month during 15 consecutive months August, October, Samplings were performed both in the “Aquatic vegetation” habitat and in the “Open water” habitat using cast net 9.

Seining was done in the marginal aquatic vegetation by setting the seine stationary and kicking the vegetation to drive the fish in to the net 12 Cast nets, gill nets and hooks were used in the “Open water”. The ethanol preserved-fishes were identified using the inland water fish guide of Van Thielen et al.

Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus individuals were sorted by habitat and by sampling period Each individual was then weighed to the nearest 0. Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus individuals were then dissected and the digestive tract was removed and its length was measured as the chrtsichthys from the distal end to the anus The alimentary canal was then opened and all food resources were removed and spread on a glass slide for examination first under a binocular model: Pierron to identify large food items.

Water was added to facilitate separation and identification of small food items. To identify algae, a few drops of chryskchthys containing fine prey items from stomach contents were examined under a photonic microscope 10 Prey items were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level using the reference of Needham and Needham 17 for nigrodugitatus and macro invertebrates. The identified food items were then separated and blotted on a paper towel to remove excess moisture.

The volume of each food category from an individual stomach was estimated nigrkdigitatus water displacement using an appropriately sized-graduated cylinder The prey items belonging to a given category were gathered into a single sample for volumetric estimates.

For example, a food item having a volume approximately one quarter of the volume of the nigrdoigitatus. For each of the stomachs of C. The proportional volumetric consumption of each prey chrysichtthys then computed as follows Also, to explore ontogenetic diet shifts, the volumetric proportions of each food resource ingested were computed for different size classes of C. The coefficient of emptiness is the ratio of number of empty stomachs to chrysicgthys number of stomachs examined and was expressed as follows:.

The frequency of occurrence FO of each prey items was computed using the following formula of Bahou et al. To evaluate the eco-morphological patterns of C. These eco-morphological data were used to document the food habit of C. Prey ingested and niche breadth: In the artificial lake of Ahozon, C. Aquatic insects were dominated by diptera larvae and nymphs Other major aquatic insects ingested were Coleoptera 7. Aggregated algae ingested by C.

In lake Ahozon, niche breadth averaged 5. These relatively high niche breadths recorded indicated that C.

Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Bagrid catfish : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

On individuals of C. In general, the coefficient of emptiness Ce varied seasonally and ontogenetically and ranged between 0 and Nevertheless, empty stomachs in adults were higher and averaged Seasonally, higher empty stomachs were recorded during the dry periods and averaged Overall, the percentage occurrence recorded for the food resources consumed by C.

The lowest frequencies of occurrence were recorded among algae such as Scenedesmus Scenedesmaceae found in 3 0. The highest occurrences were recorded for substrate particules occurring in Seasonal variations of diet: In lake Ahozon, C. Nevertheless, the proportional consumption of sand particles were greater during the flood season with a volumetric proportion averaging Diet similarities and ontogenetic diet shifts: Indeed, algae and microcrustacae dominated the diet of C.

This size-related foraging trend of C. Food resources and morphological relationships: The proportional consumption of dominant food resources algae, aquatic insects, seeds, detritus, sand particles were plotted against Standard Length SL and Gut Length GL to explore the eco-morphological correlates of the trophic structure of C.

Inversely, the volumetric proportion of aquatic insects, seeds and detritus were positively correlated with SL and GL indicating that the proportional consumptions of these three prey items increased with SL and GL Table 6.

Also, the eco-morphological patterns of C. Knowledge on trophic ecology is of great interest for habitat protection, species conservation and establishment, fisheries management and overall ecosystem valorization 10 In the man-made lake of Ahozon, C.

These results indicated that, in this special habitat, aquatic insects were the major food items consumed by this introduced catfish species.

In particular, diptera larvae and nymphs This high consumption of aquatic insects by C. Indeed, in lake Ahozon, the presence of marginal wetlands associated with aquatic vegetation could have boosted the proliferation of aquatic insects that were available for C.

In this study, there was no record of domestic waste dumping or organic pollution that chrysiichthys cause chironomid proliferations.

Human uses

Therefore, only the colonization and the decomposition of marginal vegetation may have increased the abundance chrysichthhs chironomids. However, fish dominated the diet of the Cross River Estuary with In contrast with our findings, no aquatic insects have been recorded in the diet of Chrysichrhys. These differences recorded in the diet composition could be partially attributed to the period of sampling between study regions. For example, the diet investigation in the Epe Lagoon of Nigeria extended from January-Julyprobably corresponding to two seasons dry, wet whereas lake Ahozon samplings encompassed 15 months, hence, including the three seasons wet, flood, dry.

Another major cause of the differences in the diet composition between lake Ahozon population and that of the three water chrysichthjs Lagoon of lagos, Cross River Estuary, Epe Lagoon of Nigeria is that these later are natural, ancient and brackish aquatic biota with high biological diversity fish, crustacean, mollusks, crabs, algae etc.

Inversely, lake Ahozon is a young and isolated artificial water body established about 11 years ago and hence, exhibiting relatively low food resources, except aquatic insects which may have been more available due to its high rate of colonization nigrodigifatus has been especially enhanced by the presence of marginal aquatic vegetation.

Nevertheless, like lake Ahozon population, detritus were consistently found in the diet of these three lakes Lagoon of lagos, Cross River Estuary, Epe Lagoon from Nigeria. These feeding patterns depicted indicated that C. This chrysichthus plasticity behavior of C.

This trophic plasticity is an advantage and explains why C. Also, the frequencies of occurrence of the preys consumed nigrodigigatus C. Indeed of the 25 prey items ingested by C. Among them, the aggregated aquatic insects Diptera, Coleoptera, Tricoptera, Megaloptera, Hemiptera, Odonata and Lepidoptera were the most dominant food resources and occurred in