Summary. A Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change, or the Burke & Litwin Model, suggests linkages that hypothesize how performance is. Download scientific diagram | The Burke-Litwin Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change from publication: Change Management Strategy in. To provide a model of organizational performance and change, at least two lines of theorizing need to be W. Warner Burke George H. Litwin The authors go beyond description and suggest causal linkages that hypothesize how.

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It provides a framework to assess organizational and environmental dimensions that are keys to successful change and it demonstrates how these dimensions should be linked causally to achieve a change in performance. The model not only discusses how different dimensions link with each other but also discusses how external environment affects the different dimensions in an organization.

Individual and Organisational Performance — This factor is the overall output of the organisation.

Burke-Litwin: The Performance and Change Model

Putting the Burke-Litwin Change Model to Effective Use Burke-Litwin model provides an effective strategy to manage organizational change, but its effectiveness is subject to how well each of the twelve dimensions identified by it are explored and put to use. The 12 Dimensions Here is a brief description of each of the 12 dimensions identified by the Burke-Litwin change model. Click here to access the concerned pages.

The other most critical aspect is how well the management and the staff collaborate to achieve the new strategies and goals as proposed in the change. Motivation — The setting of goals to inspire and direct employees. The authors argue these factors are strongly affected by management, rather than leadership. It is important to remember that the model does not make any changes to the critical factors, however it is a useful tool for identifying the relevant factors and how they interact with one another when a change process is occurring or being planned for.

The causal model links what could be understood from practice to what is known from research and theory.

Change Management

Assessing Key Factors The Burke-Litwin change model strives to bring in change in the performance of a team or an organization by establishing links between performance and the internal and external factors which affect performance. And understanding the linkage between these supportive pillars is the key to effective and burkf-litwin change. Transactional factors pink blocks refer to day-to-day operations within the organisation.


The key external factors that have an impact on the buurke-litwin must be identified and their direct and indirect impact on the organization should be clearly established. This would cause leadership to alter management practices, which in turn would affect the work unit climate and systems. Lasting change to any of these factors is likely to sweep change throughout the organisation. A study of the mdel structure of the organizationshould be carried out, which clearly identifies the chief role models in the organization.

For practical use it would be better to look at these key factors and questions and burke-littwin answers to them. A common reason for a change initiative failing is all areas of the organisation affected by the change are not accounted for.

It is the external environment burke-kitwin makes an organization to change its mission, culture, leadership and its operating strategies. The most critical aspect here is establishing the links between the twelve dimensions of this change framework. Individual and Overall Performance: Any change that occurs to these factors will have substantial consequences to the rest of the organisation. The model also demonstrates the hierarchy of factors within an organisation and hence the flow of influence from one factor to the next.

An example would be a change in legal working requirements external environment. It is a collective study of how the employees think, feel and what do they expect. Systems includes all types of policies and procedures with regards to both the people and the operations of the organization.

The Performance and Change Model Analyse model. Change in these factors is only likely to lead to lasting change if, in turn, the transformational factors are also affected. Individuals in leadership positions are responsible for developing moel vision and motivating the rest of the organisation to achieving it.

This change model is based on assessing the organizational as well as environmental factors which can be tweaked so as to ensure a successful change. This would also involve identifying motivational triggers. For example, how well team members cooperate, how comfortable individuals feel expressing themselves or how well goals are set and rewarded. Here is a brief description of each of the 12 dimensions identified by the Burke-Litwin change model. The model focuses on providing a guide for both organizational diagnosis and planned, managed organizational change, one that clearly shows cause-and-effect relationships.


Each group then contains various elements of the organisation.

The Burke-Litwin change model begins with outlining a framework, comprising the affecting factors which can be manipulated to guarantee a smoother transition from one phase of the change process to another.

This involves understanding what a specific job position demands and the kind of kind of skills and knowledge that an employee must have in order to fulfill the task responsibilities of that job position.

Before we talk about these 12 dimensions, here is a little insight into the basic philosophy on which this change model is based. An experienced, high-level employee may still struggle to adopt new technologies, for example. The 12 key dimensions of the change model mosel with and affect each other.

There are four groups of elements within an organisation; the external environment, transformational factors, transactional factors and performance. This dimension takes into account the level of performance, on individual and organizational levels, in key areas like productivity, quality, efficiency, budget and customer satisfaction etc.

Using the Burke-Litwin Change Model to Manage Organizational Change

An organizational culture study should seek information on the explicit as well as the implied rules, regulations, customs, principles and values that influence the organizational behavior. Therefore, using this model can reveal what areas of the business are affected and how they midel interrelated. Identifying the motivation level of the employees will make it easier to determine how willingly they would put in their efforts to achieve organizational goals.

Once this has occurred, all affected elements can also be identified.