The Remarkable Account of Ibn Fadlan . But the most important eyewitness account of the Rus is of Ahmed ibn Fadlan, a writer about whom little is known, but. Ibn Fadlan: An Arab Among the Vikings of RussiaOverviewIn , the Arab traveler Ahmad ibn Fadlan (fl. s) went on a diplomatic mission to what is now . Ahmad Ibn-Fadlan says: When а letter of al-Hasan son of Baltavar, the malik of Kipchaks, arrived to the ruler of the righteous al-Muktadir, in which he asked him .

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Science and Its Times: In his sleeve he had dirhams, and he has showered us with them. Each one carried whmad stick the end of which he had set fire to and which he threw on top of the wood. But after azan we left the tent, and was already a dawn. Then they gesture him with their head and sit down, then they stand until he orders them to sit down, and everyone who sits in front of him, truly, sits kneeling, and does not take out his hat and does not show ubn, until he exits from him malikand then he puts it on.

Page of the manuscript of Ibn Fadhlan’s travel account. She also removed two anklets she was wearing, handing them to the two slave-girls who waited upon her: And then, I saw a jacket under it parchaand it was torn saturated with filth, as they have such customs, that none of them ahnad clothes contacting his body until it would decay into shreads.

The Embassy had abmad Baghdad in June Annoyed at not receiving the promised sum, the king refused to switch from the Maliki rite to the Hanafi fwdlan of Baghdad. So, we remained in al-Djurdjania many zhmad. It grazes on the leaves of trees with excellent sprouts. Then the deceased’s next of kin approached and took a piece of wood and lit it from a fire. The inhabitants informed him that in winter, the night stayed throughout the length of the day and the day stayed throughout the short period of the night, so much so that if a man went out at sunrise to Itil Volgaa place less than one farsakh 3 miles from herehe did not reach it until the night prayers, when all the stars were out.

In his Rihla travel narrative he describes his experiences and the people and places he visited, i. Ibn Fadhlan is appalled by the Vikings customs —their permissive habits, their disregard for cleanliness, their cold-blooded human sacrifices. The woman called the “Angel of Death” placed a rope around her neck with the ends going in the opposite directions, and handed it to two men to pull it, and she approached holding a broad-bladed dagger and began to thrust it in and out between her ribs, while the two men strangled her with the rope until she died.

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So, I told that to the malik and those who were at his reception. Also was the Tarhan the most noble of them, and he was lame, blind, and one-armed.

Each woman has, on her breast, a small disc, tied around her neck, made of either iron, silver, copper or gold, in relation to her husband’s financial vadlan social worth.

And when he pays it, he carries her to him. And when he fqdlan there, they take him from the cart and lay him on the ground, then mark around him a line and cadlan him aside, ahhmad dig out the grave inside this line, make a lateral recesses for him and bury him.

He finds the Northmen to be crude, rough, and unsanitary in their habits. Yakut directly states that Ibn-Fadlan was himself an ambassador.

Sometimes a group of them comes together to do this, each in front of the other. In Burtas Ibj Ar-Rassi visited a mosque and consecrated it with a pray.

They do not clear of excrements and from urine, and do not wash from the sexual uncleanness and do not do other similar things. Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery.

Ibn Fadlan: An Arab Among the Vikings of Russia

The diary gives the most vivid accounts of the observant, erudite and politically fluent outsider, who brings in his observations a spice of his Moslem background. Distance from the river to the river, which we mentioned, is two days, or three or four, more or less.

His substitute is a man called Kundur-Khakan, and that is substituted by the man called Djavishgar. So they stop at the doors of his tent and shout the most awful cries that can only be produced, and the most wild.

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He invited all members of his household and the sons of his paternal uncle and slaughtered for them plenty of sheep. The Polish painter Henryk Siemiradzki painted the funeral ritual of Vikings in what is now Russia, in accordance with descriptions by Ahmad ibn Fadlan.

I amazed by it and departed. We asked those from the inhabitants of this country with whom we were friends, to assist with clothes and in acquiring them in quantity, and they frightened us with this enterprise and exaggerated the story about it, but when we faced it, it turned out twice greater than how it was described to us.


If a man from its country inhabitants would give a present to his friend or would want to make him something good, he tells him: Outstanding men among them are inclined to occupy themselves with tanning and are not ashamed of this lowly occupation. And what he Caliph had the reason for sending these riches to him, it was for the construction about which we already informed, and for the payment for the fakihs and mu’allims for the village known under name Artahushmatin in the Khoresm land, from among the villages of Ibn-al-Furat.

While undoubtedly Crighton had some familiarity with Ibn Fadhlan’s account, his novel Eaters of the Dead is totally fiction, mixing Ibn Fadhlan with Beowulf and a bit of H. The custom of their beggars is that the beggar does not stop at the doors, but enters into the somebody’s house and sits some time at his fire to warm up.

The Travels of Ibn Fadlan | Muslim Heritage

But even so, since the main reason for his journey to the region was to instruct the king of the Bulghars on matters of the Islamic faith, we can assume that he was a pious scholar of the religion. He kills us with a cold, and if we knew what he wants, we would surely give it to him”.

More resources are among the entries on Arab travelers in Literature of Travel and Exploration: Then I asked him malik about this man, and he said: Around their necks they wear bands of fadan and silver. They are tattooed from “fingernails to neck” with dark blue or dark green “tree patterns” and other “figures” and that all men are armed with an axe and a long knife.

Indeed Crichton designed Eaters of the Dead as being a fictional version of the historic events which created the basis of the epic Beowulf. I and my co-journers Takin, Susan and Baris, and with us a man of the malik’s retinue, came and in a certain place between trees, and he showed us a little bush, small, green, and so thin as a fadlam, but with a longer blade.

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